Mining is The process or business of extracting ore or minerals from the ground. In other word, Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory, is usually mined. Mining in a wider sense comprises extraction of any non-renewable resource
The essece of mining in extracting mineral from earth is to drive or construct an excavation, a mean of the entry, from the existing surface to the mineral deposit.
Mining today is able to profitably and safely recover minerals with little negative impact to the environment.