Generic protocol for loading and firing of explosives (surface mining)




Blasting is a complex activity demanding special skills on the part of the blaster and other crew members. It requires a careful coordination of tasks between the blasting crew and other employees working in the vicinity of the blast site. Before loading explosives in a borehole, the blaster will generally examine the drilling logs to identify potential problem areas such as presence of mud seams, voids, or geological anomalies. This is followed by a visual inspection of the highwall face and bench top. The blaster should look for presence of overhangs, back breaks, softer stratum, and other irregularities. Laser profiling data, if required, is examined at this time. Based on the approved blasting plan and the results of examination, the blaster will calculate the charge weight, geometry, stemming, and other parameters. Safety considerations dictate that employees not associated with loading and blasting operations should leave the blast site. Blast sites should be secured and warning signs posted before loading boreholes. The blasting machine or the firing key should be securely kept by the blaster during the entire process of loading and hook up to prevent any unintentional detonation. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 30, Part 56.6306 prohibits driving vehicles and equipment over explosive material or initiating system. The rise of an explosive column in a borehole should be checked during the loading process. The blaster should know and adhere to safe operating procedures. The blaster or a designated employee should connect the individual holes to the firing line. It is a good practice to walk along the firing line to reexamine the connections. If any instrumentation for recording ground vibration and air blast has been deployed, it should be checked and set at this time. Next, the blaster should clear all employees from the blast area, post guards at all entrances to the blast area, and communicate to the mine foreman about the impending blast. The blaster (and helpers, if any) should go outside the blast area or stay inside a blasting shelter. Upon receiving clear and unambiguous feedback from the guards and mine foreman, blast signals are sounded and the shot is fired. Rock blasting releases a tremendous amount of energy in a very short time span. It is imperative to establish an effective protocol to maintain blast area security. Before sounding an all-clear signal, the blaster should conduct a visual inspection of the blast site and check for undetonated explosives, misfires, and other problems. The blasting log should be finalized at this time. Finally, all unused explosives should be returned to the magazine.

by T. S. Bajpayee, T. R. Rehak, G. L. Mowrey, and D. K. Ingram


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1 komentar:

Rob Deur said...
May 24, 2009 at 7:11 PM

SUBJECT: Improved Explosives for Mining and Demolition

Mining: Continuous blasting possible, saving on mining-operations.
In trials we carried out in the South African mines against our competitor we found our product gave a higher production.
Gemstone mining; the stones are very brittle and get shattered by high explosives; our improved explosives are the solution.

Demolition: Inside buildings or in heavily populated areas.
As an example we have taken out a concrete wall INSIDE the National Bank of Belgium.
Also for underwater demolition with the additional advantage that it will not harm the marine life surrounding the blast; it creates no shockwaves.

Crime and Terrorism:
There is no explosion...making it useless for criminals or terrorists.

WE ARE LOOKING FOR AGENTS and/or MANUFACTURERS IN OTHER COUNTRIES: To 'manufacture under license' it only takes a simple containerised setup and all that is required is a mixer and a filling machine; setup costs are low. For the setting up and training etc. you will be assisted by one of our specialists.


How does it work?

A borehole is drilled; put an explosive-cartridge inside plus a few handsful damp sand; place a safety canvas over the borehole...

An initiator is connected with electrical wires to the explosive cartridge (a plastic tube with a mix of four chemicals); the chemical mixture turns into harmless gasses (it expands) resulting in pressure but not as violent as TNT or Dynamite.
Minimal 'fly rock', vibrations or dust.

This product is NOT an explosive, it is categorized as 'articles pyrotechnic for technical purposes'. It is classified as 1.4S which is lower than the firework-classification of 1.4G.
There is no explosion hence the name 'Non-Explosive Demolition Technology'.
The cartridge can not explode; in open air it gives a little flame of 15 cm and fades away.
Many 'blasting men' after seeing the results refuse to believe it is not an explosive...


Transport of the explosives:
In any vehicle, without police escort. Even in a passenger airplane.

Crime and Terrorism:
There is no explosion...making it useless for criminals or terrorists.


Over the last 8 years we have been selling in the following countries: UK, Ireland, Sweden, Turkey, Greece, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, USA, Caribbean, Pakistan, Singapore, Belgium and France.

WE ARE LOOKING FOR AGENTS and/or MANUFACTURERS IN OTHER COUNTRIES: To 'manufacture under license' it only takes a simple containerised setup and all that is required is a mixer and a filling machine; setup costs are low. For the setting up and training etc. you will be assisted by one of our specialists.


Technical Data:
breaking pressure 4,000 kg/cm2, min.
detonation velocity 40-60 m/sec.
detonation pressure 0.14 atm. (which is very low compared to explosives)
Cartridges: diameter 10 mm to 56 mm and lenght 100 mm to 350 mm
(special sizes on request)


Please E-mail to explosives.tech@yahoo.com
or send a text-message (SMS) to 0063 917 465 22 88
with your name, location and question for more info
Or see the webpage:
http://explosives-tech.blogspot.com/2009/05/explosives.html